Central-Eastern European countries such as Poland may serve as an interesting point of reference for generally studying major trends in competition law and policy and, more specifically, in post-transformation countries. Their experience may reveal characteristics not present in the case of Western European EU Member States. Moreover, they face specific challenges linked to the way…

I. Cartels Legal Framework and Procedure In November 2021, Austria adopted a regulation on certain procedural aspects of leniency applications.[2] The regulation sets out the required content of leniency and immunity applications, the possibility to request a marker, and the possibility to submit a short form application in case the applicant has already submitted an…

2021 brought many interesting competition law developments around the world. We are happy to report that our second edition of the series on main developments in competition law and policy involved even more country reports. Check them out: Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Canada China Denmark European Union Georgia Germany Greece Italy Korea The Netherlands Poland…

The following is a selection of some of the most important developments in German competition law and policy in 2021.  It has been a busy year for the Federal Cartel Office (“FCO”), inter alia because the new rules for digital companies took effect.  The following covers cases under these new rules, abuse of dominance, merger…

Even amidst another Covid-19 dominated year, the Belgian Competition Authority (“BCA”) and courts have maintained a steady pace of competition law enforcement. With fewer substantive mergers to review, the BCA’s focus in 2021 has rather been on unlawful information exchange and a variety of vertical restrictions. While the BCA has yet to rule on abuse…

2021 was another busy year for the UK competition regulator, the Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”), building on the previous year’s focus on merger control, antitrust enforcement, and digital markets.  Heading into 2022, the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (“CMA”) had 36 merger investigations, 14 competition enforcement cases, 13 consumer protection cases, three market studies…

Better late than never. Last year’s recap post on European Union competition law and policy developments already was quite long (see post here). This year’s post might even be longer. Sorry, dear readers, nothing much I can do – 2021 was a very busy year.   Article 101 – of principles, evaluation of rules and…

Competition developments in Slovenia followed the international trends. In the M&A frenzy of the pandemic era, the Competition Protection Agency (“CPA”) remained busy with an increased number of merger filings. While COVID cases seemed to have grown in parallel with dealmaking bonanza, the CPA returned to conducting on-site dawn raids. As ever, gun-jumping remained a…

In Denmark, the Competition Council is the principal enforcer of competition law with the Competition and Consumer Authority acting as the day-to-day caretaker, including rendering decisions in (minor) cases. Decisions from either may be appeals to the Competition Tribunal or the judiciary, and after amendments in 2021 which implemented the ECN+ directive, initial appeal to…

As part of the series of posts on the main 2021 developments in key jurisdictions by many authors of the Kluwer Competition Law Blog, we provide you with an overview of the main developments over 2021 in the Netherlands. In sum, we saw an upsurge in the enforcement of the competition rules in the Netherlands…